Statistics by Hand: An Introductory Course for Psychologists
Psychology undergraduates are often introduced to statistics using
SPSS, or other automated package. This sort of software is great if you
already understand what you are doing, but learning what buttons to
press on SPSS does not mean you understand statistics (and vice versa).
In fact, I suspect that starting with SPSS overshadows learning about
The following are materials for a 10 one-hour lecture course
on how to do simple statistics by hand, focussing on developing students'
understanding of the underlying concepts. It is an introductory course
for a student body that includes people with limited maths knowledge;
it is not intended as an advanced course.
These materials are in the public domain.
- Introduction (PDF).
- Statistical Inference and Wilcoxon rank-sum (PDF).
- Test selection and Wilcoxon matched-pairs (PDF).
- Chi-square (PDF).
- Variability and variance (PDF).
- Normality and Z-test (PDF).
- t-test, part 1 (PDF).
- t-test, part 2 (PDF).
- Covariance and Correlation (PDF).
- Outliers and test selection (PDF).